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2019-04-22 01:20

A An introduction of a Toyota’s 225 horsepower V6 engine.

Let's imagine a sculptor building a statue, just chipping away with his chisel. Michelangelo had this elegant way of describing it when he said, "Every block of stone has a statue inside of it, and it's the task of the sculptor to discover it." But what if he worked in the opposite direction? Not from a solid block of stone, but from a pile of dust, somehow gluing millions of these particles together to form a statue.

[5. Nano hazard]

1.hazards to human: Some nanoparticles can pass to the brain via the central nervous system following inhalation.
2.environmental hazards: effects in groundwaters and soils.

The Tiniest Electric Motor in the World



water repellent fabrics from hydrophobic louts

A An introduction of a Toyota’s 225 horsepower V6 engine.

Thank you so much for your time. I appreciate it.

Chemical potential

![](http://latex.codecogs.com/gif.latex?Delta mu = gamma Omega (1/R_1 1/R_2)) convex surface, the curvature is positive, chemical potential of an atom is higher than that on a flat surface. (concave is lower than flat)

二〇〇八年教材上新增加了大约一七篇小说,词汇选项,阅读决断, 归纳大要落成句子, 阅读精晓, 补全短文, 完型填空各种题型上都有新添作品。 理工科类和卫生类新添的篇章更突显专门的职业性。新添小说的语言难度和难题考点设置景况在放任自流水平上展现了08年考题的出题趋势。

Now that last one, that's a really important one. We just have come to expect the pace of computing advancements to go on indefinitely. We've built entire economies on this idea. And this pace exists because of our ability to pack more and more devices onto a computer chip. And as those devices get smaller, they get faster, they consume less power and they get cheaper. And it's this convergence that gives us this incredible pace.


diamond: sp3; graphite: sp2
0D: fullerenes; 1D: carbon nanotubes; 2D: graphene; 3D: graphite

C [u]Surface tension[/u](表面李尚).

At this point, we said, "Let's just stop. Let's not go down that same road. Let's just figure out what's missing. What are we not dealing with? What are we not doing that needs to be done?" It's like in "The Godfather," right? When Fredo betrays his brother Michael, we all know what needs to be done. Fredo's got to go.

[2. Fabrication of nano materials]

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  4. Paragraph 6

But that was 15 years ago, and -- fantastic science was done, really important work. We've learned a lot. We were never able to translate that science into new technologies -- into technologies that could actually impact people. And the reason is, these nanomaterials -- they're like a double-edged sword. The same thing that makes them so interesting -- their small size -- also makes them impossible to work with. It's literally like trying to build a statue out of a pile of dust. And we just don't have the tools that are small enough to work with them. But even if we did, it wouldn't really matter, because we couldn't one by one place millions of particles together to build a technology. So because of that, all of the promise and all of the excitement has remained just that: promise and excitement. We don't have any disease-fighting nanobots, there's no elevators to space, and the thing that I'm most interested in, no new types of computing.

[4. Applications of nano materials]

C [u]Surface tension[/u](表面伊哈洛).

When I was a graduate student, it was one of the most exciting times to be working in nanotechnology. There were scientific breakthroughs happening all the time. The conferences were buzzing, there was tons of money pouring in from funding agencies. And the reason is when objects get really small, they're governed by a different set of physics that govern ordinary objects, like the ones we interact with. We call this physics quantum mechanics. And what it tells you is that you can precisely tune their behavior just by making seemingly small changes to them, like adding or removing a handful of atoms, or twisting the material. It's like this ultimate toolkit. You really felt empowered; you felt like you could make anything.

chemical methods

electrochemical deposition
electroless deposition
hydrothermal and solvothermal techniques
sol-gel technique (chemical solution deposition)
chemical vapor deposition
laser chemical vapor deposition technique

二.B.解析:段落中未有显然的段落大旨句, 然而段子中冒出了大气反映卓绝细节新闻的用语:20 microwatts(微瓦), 200 nanometers(皮米), hundreds of times smaller than the width of a human hair, 十0 million times more powerful, 225 horsepower(马力), 这么些细节新闻贯穿全段, 从性质上它们各自用于描述功率和尺寸大小, 由此可直接决断B(描述了微米引擎的功率和尺寸大小)是答案。

The point is the progress -- it's not gradual. The progress is relentless. It's exponential. It compounds on itself year after year, to the point where if you compare a technology from one generation to the next, they're almost unrecognizable. And we owe it to ourselves to keep this progress going. We want to say the same thing 10, 20, 30 years from now: look what we've done over the last 30 years. Yet we know this progress may not last forever. In fact, the party's kind of winding down. It's like "last call for alcohol," right? If you look under the covers, by many metrics like speed and performance, the progress has already slowed to a halt. So if we want to keep this party going, we have to do what we've always been able to do, and that is to innovate.

characterization techniques

澳门威尼斯人娱乐场,X-ray diffraction(XRD)
scanning electron microscopy(SEM)
transmission electron microscopy(TEM)
scanning probe microscopy(SPM)
atomic force microscopy(AFM)
scanning tunneling microscopy(STM)
环视电镜SEM(有立体感)(可配套WDX波谱仪 ,EDX能谱仪)

F Possible fields of application in the future.

Now, computing is just one example. It's the one that I'm interested in, that my group is really invested in, but there are others in renewable energy, in medicine, in structural materials, where the science is going to tell you to move towards the nano. That's where the biggest benefit is. But if we're going to do that, the scientists of today and tomorrow are going to need new tools -- tools just like the ones I described. And they will need chemistry. That's the point. The beauty of science is that once you develop these new tools, they're out there. They're out there forever, and anyone anywhere can pick them up and use them, and help to deliver on the promise of nanotechnology.

Surface energy

for a given surface with a fixed surface area, the surface energy can be reduced through: 1. surface relaxation; 2. surface restructuring;

  1. surface adsorption; 4. composition segregation.
    Therefore, a crystalline particle normally forms facets, instead of having a spherical shape. (reduction of the overall surface area)

B A description of the nanomotor in terms of power and size.

I know that's an absurd notion. It's probably impossible. The only way you get a statue from a pile of dust is if the statue built itself -- if somehow we could compel millions of these particles to come together to form the statue.

[3. Characterization of nano materials]

B A description of the nanomotor in terms of power and size.

And we were doing it -- and by we I mean my whole generation of graduate students. We were trying to make blazing fast computers using nanomaterials. We were constructing quantum dots that could one day go in your body and find and fight disease. There were even groups trying to make an elevator to space using carbon nanotubes. You can look that up, that's true. Anyways, we thought it was going to affect all parts of science and technology, from computing to medicine. And I have to admit, I drank all of the Kool-Aid. I mean, every last drop.


Nanostructure materials are those with at least one dimension falling in nanometer scale, and include:
nanoparticles, nano rods and nanowire, thin films, bulk materials made of nanoscale building blocks or consisting of nanoscale structures.


Now, as it turns out, this is not that alien of a problem. We just don't build anything this way. People don't build anything this way. But if you look around -- and there's examples everywhere -- Mother Nature builds everything this way. Everything is built from the bottom up. You can go to the beach, you'll find these simple organisms that use proteins -- basically molecules -- to template what is essentially sand, just plucking it from the sea and building these extraordinary architectures with extreme diversity. And nature's not crude like us, just hacking away. She's elegant and smart, building with what's available, molecule by molecule, making structures with a complexity and a diversity that we can't even approach. And she's already at the nano. She's been there for hundreds of millions of years. We're the ones that are late to the party.

physical methods

evaporation technique
sputtering technique 溅射
lithography processes 平板印刷 (coat expose develop etch strip)
hot and cold plasma
spray pyrolysis 喷射 高温分解
inert gas phase condensation technique
pulsed laser ablation
sono-chemiacal reduction


But Michael -- he puts it off. Fine, I get it. Their mother's still alive, it would make her upset. We just said, "What's the Fredo in our problem?" What are we not dealing with? What are we not doing, but needs to be done to make this a success?" And the answer is that the statue has to build itself. We have to find a way, somehow, to compel, to convince billions of these particles to assemble themselves into the technology. We can't do it for them. They have to do it for themselves. And it's the hard way, and this is not trivial, but in this case, it's the only way.


Classification of NSMs (nanostructured materials)
zero-dimensional(0-D), 0 dimension is not confined to the nanoscale range (<100nm)./ all dimensions are confined… {nanoparticles}
1-D, {nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes}
2-D, {nano coatings and nanofilms}
3-D, {dispersions of nanoparticles, bundles of nanowires and nanotubes, multinanolayers}
1.matrix-reinforced nano composites: matrix reinforced with nanoparticles, matrix reinforced with nanowires/nanotubes
2.layered nano composites: laminates, sandwiches

E The working principle of the nanomotor.

So there we have it. We have this really important problem and we have what is basically the ideal solution. The science is screaming at us, "This is what you should be doing to solve your problem." So, all right, let's get started, let's do this. But you just run right back into that double-edged sword. This "ideal solution" contains a material that's impossible to work with. I'd have to arrange billions of them just to make one single computer chip. It's that same conundrum, it's like this undying problem.


top-down: etching
bottom-up: growth of thin films, nano lithography, nano manipulation

如果段落中有引人注目的“细节音讯词”, 能够设想使用这一个细节音讯所展现的核心内容来认同段落核心。

Now, as odd as that sounds, that is almost exactly the problem I work on in my lab. I don't build with stone, I build with nanomaterials. They're these just impossibly small, fascinating little objects. They're so small that if this controller was a nanoparticle, a human hair would be the size of this entire room. And they're at the heart of a field we call nanotechnology, which I'm sure we've all heard about, and we've all heard how it is going to change everything.

D Previous inventions of nanoscale(飞米级的) products.

As an example: if I took the room-sized computer that sent three men to the moon and back and somehow compressed it -- compressed the world's greatest computer of its day, so it was the same size as your smartphone -- your actual smartphone, that thing you spent 300 bucks on and just toss out every two years, would blow this thing away. You would not be impressed. It couldn't do anything that your smartphone does. It would be slow, you couldn't put any of your stuff on it, you could possibly get through the first two minutes of a "Walking Dead" episode if you're lucky --


materials in nano size range exhibit some remarkable specific properties, for example:
1.Crystals in the nanometer scale have a low melting point and reduced lattice constants.
2.Bulk semiconductors become insulators when the characteristic dimension is sufficiently small.



based on

1.the peculiar physical properties of nano sized materials (gold nanoparticles used as inorganic dye to introduce colors into glass)
2.the huge surface area (nanoparticles for various sensors )
3.the small size

E The working principle of the nanomotor.

So our group's role and our group's mission is to innovate by employing carbon nanotubes, because we think that they can provide a path to continue this pace. They are just like they sound. They're tiny, hollow tubes of carbon atoms, and their nanoscale size, that small size, gives rise to these just outstanding electronic properties. And the science tells us if we could employ them in computing, we could see up to a ten times improvement in performance. It's like skipping through several technology generations in just one step.

[1. Nano materials]

  1. Scientists recently made public the tiniest electric motor ever built. You could stuff hundreds of them into the period at the end of this sentence. One day a similar engine might power a tiny mechanical doctor that would travel through your body to remove your disease.

  2. The motor works by shuffling(来回运动) atoms(原子) between two molten metal droplets(小滴) in a carbon nanotube(皮米管). One droplet is even smaller than the other. When a small electric current is applied to the droplets, atoms slowly get out of the larger droplet and join the smaller one. The small droplet grows – but never gets as big as the other droplet – and eventually bumps into the large droplet. As they touch, the large droplet rapidly sops up (吸入)the atoms it had previously lost. This quick shift in energy produces a power stroke(引力行程).

  3. The technique exploits the fact that surface tension -- the tendency of atoms or molecules to resist separating -- becomes more important at small scales. Surface tension is the same thing that allows some insects to walk on water.

  4. Although the amount of energy produced is small -- 20 microwatts(百优异之一瓦) -- it is quite impressive(给人回忆浓密的) in relation to(与...比较) the tiny scale of the motor. The whole setup is less than 200 nanometers on a side, or hundreds of times smaller than the width of a human hair. If it could be scaled up to the size of an automobile engine, it would be 100 million times more powerful than a 丰田 SANTANA’s 225 horsepower V陆 engine.

  5. In 1990, Professor Richard Muller and colleagues made the first operating(专门的学问的, 运营的) micromotor(微型内燃机), which was 拾0 microns(飞米) across, or about the thickness of a human hair. In 200三, Zettl's group created the first nanoscale motor. In 200陆, they built a nanoconveyor(皮米传送带), which moves tiny particles along like cars in a factory.

  6. Nanotechnology(微米技巧) engineers try to mimic nature, building things atom-by-atom. Among other things, nanomotors could be used in optical circuits to redirect light, a process called optical switching. Futurists envision(预想) a day when nanomachines(皮米机器), powered by nanomotors(纳米引擎), travel inside your body to find disease and repair damaged cells.

So we decided that we're going to use the same tool that nature uses, and that's chemistry. Chemistry is the missing tool. And chemistry works in this case because these nanoscale objects are about the same size as molecules, so we can use them to steer these objects around, much like a tool. That's exactly what we've done in our lab. We've developed chemistry that goes into the pile of dust, into the pile of nanoparticles, and pulls out exactly the ones we need. Then we can use chemistry to arrange literally billions of these particles into the pattern we need to build circuits. And because we can do that, we can build circuits that are many times faster than what anyone's been able to make using nanomaterials before. Chemistry's the missing tool, and every day our tool gets sharper and gets more precise. And eventually -- and we hope this is within a handful of years -- we can deliver on one of those original promises.

optical spectroscopy

1.absorption and emission spectroscopy: absorption and transmission spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy
2.vibrational spectroscopy: infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy

  1. Paragraph 4 ____.

  2. Although the amount of energy(能量) produced is small -- 20 microwatts( 百出色之壹瓦) -- it is quite impressive( 给人纪念深切的) in relation to(与...比较 )the tiny scale of the motor. The whole setup is less than 200 nanometers( 微米) on a side, or hundreds of times smaller than the width(宽度) of a human hair. If it could be scaled up to the size of an automobile engine, it would be 100 million times more powerful(庞大的) than a 丰田(Toyota) C大切诺基IDE纳瓦拉’s 225 horsepower(马力) V陆engine.


D Previous inventions of nanoscale(微米级的) products.

钦定的多个段落都未曾显著的段落核心句(2007年理工科类A/B级归纳概略题中两个钦点段落都尚未鲜明性段落核心句),考生可以透过通读内定段落的不经意来综合出段落主旨, 或倚靠一些立竿见影的答题才干确定段落宗旨。以确认段落第4段的段子主旨为例分析答题技术:


F Possible fields of application in the future.